The primary Policy objective of the Department of Food & Public Distribution is to ensure food security for the country through timely and efficient procurement and distribution of foodgrains. This involves procurement of various foodgrains, building up and maintenance of food stocks, their storage, movement and delivery to the distributing agencies and monitoring of production, stock and price levels of foodgrains. The focus is on incentivizing farmers through fair value of their produce by way of Minimum Support Price mechanism, distribution of foodgrains to Below Poverty Line (BPL) families and covering poor households at the risk of hunger under Antyodaya Anna Yojna (AAY), establishing grain banks in food scarce areas and involvement of  Panchayati Raj Institutions in Public Distribution System (PDS).

The Department is also responsible for  formulation of policies concerning the sugar sector such  as fixing of Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) of sugarcane payable by Sugar factories, development and  regulation of sugar industry (including training in sugar technology), fixation of levy price of sugar and its supply for PDS and regulation of supply of free sale sugar. The Department also formulates policies on export and import of foodgrains, sugar and edible oils.